Tuesday, 31 May 2016

The life of Tiki the Java Macaque

What is a dominance Hierarchy?
Dominance Hierarchy is determined by how dominant and individual is in a group. Depending on what role the individual person has in the group depends on how dominant the particular individual is in. This shows how the Dominance hierarchy is the organisation of the individual depending on there social rank.

How can a place in the Hierarchy be established?
A place in the Hierarchy can be established by inheritance. When an individual is born into a hierarchy the social ranking of the mother can determine the rank of the child. Tikis mother was in the middle of the social ranking she was still below some of the Java Macaque but was also above others. This meant that when Tiki was born he would be below the Children of women who had a higher social rank then his mother but he would be above children whose mothers had a lower social rank than his mother.

Another way they could establish there place in the Hierarchy is through aggressively fighting. As they become older they are able to fight for there place to become more domiant and show that they are more dominant. In Tiki's case he first served and got into the good books of the other Java Macaque on top of him so that he would be able to challenge the Alpha and become the Alpha himself once he was ready. Tiki was born at the top of the hierarchy but through aggressively fighting to became the alpha.

Who is in a Hierarchy?
In a Hierarchy there is a Alpha,Beta and Submissive's. In tikis particular Hierarchy he was above some but below others. Tiki was first submissive to those above him but worked his way to the top of the hierarchy later becoming the Alpha.

How is a hierarchy Maintained?-Agnostic behavior definition 
The Hierarchy can be maintained through Agnostic behaviors.Agnostic behaviors are used by higher ranked animals in the particular social group will use displays to put someone that is lower then them in there place. Agnostic behaviors include threats as well as aggressive behavior.  Agnostic behaviors can include biting,showing teeth,pecking, posturing(displaying strength),Dominant/submissive body language or actions,snarling and warning signs.

Benefits of the Hierarchy?
Hierarchies are helpful as it allows social groups to be able to live together.

The benefits of a hierarchy include that fact that it limits fighting as the particular species know there place within there particular social group. The actual amount of severe aggressive fighting is limited because of this. This takes away the risk of them being killed or getting badly hurt because of the aggressive fighting that would happen otherwise.

The social groups maintained through the hierarchy are able to obtain resources through hunting more effectively as they are able to do it together as group.

The amount of competition between the particular social group is reduced as they know when they are allowed access to mates and when they are allowed access to food as they go by who is more dominant.

Non-Breeding individuals in the Hierarchy can help raise the offspring of others.

1 comment:

  1. Hi Bobbi,

    Just a few quick notes: I think you mean agonistic instead of agnostic :) Agonistic behaviours are any social behaviour to do with fighting - I hate to admit it but wikipedia's page is actually pretty good: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agonistic_behaviour Agonistic behaviour is beneficial to the overall population and species because the loss of individuals reduces genetic diversity or individuals to breed with.

    I'm glad you got the definition of a dominance hierarchy in at the end of your first paragraph; the organisation of individuals in a group according to their social ranking.

    Be careful when you use the terms individual, pair, group, population or species. Don't mix up individual or species in particular, as they're very different. An individual organism is just 1. A group or population are one type of animal living in the same area. A species can mean every individual of that type of living thing capable of producing offspring together, worldwide!

    Other benefits to a hierarchy include foraging together, being able to divide labour or jobs (e.g. the meerkats who take turns being on guard duty, or how bees segregate into workers, the queen, etc, or kin selection where some individuals forgo breeding and care for the offspring of relatives, increasing the survival chance of those offspring), or group defence and increased survival of the group.

    I like how you've described Tiki's life throughout as well :)

    I hope study is going well for you!

    Kind regards,
    Miss Wells